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Entradas con etiqueta rio magdalena .

Freshwater discharge into the Caribbean Sea from the rivers of Northwestern South America (Colombia): Magnitude, variability and recent changes.

Restrepo, J. C., Ortiz J. C., Pierini J., Schrottke, K., Maza, M., Otero, L., and Aguirre, J.
Journal of Hidrology, Jan 2014.
 
The monthly averaged freshwater discharge data from ten rivers in northern Colombia (Caribbean alluvial plain) draining into the Caribbean Sea were analysed to quantify the magnitudes, to estimate longterm trends, and to evaluate the variability of discharge patterns. These rivers deliver 340.9 km3 yr1 of freshwater to the Caribbean Sea. The largest freshwater supply is provided by the Magdalena River, with a mean discharge of 205.1 km3 yr1 at Calamar, which is 26% of the total fluvial discharge into this basin.
From 2000 to 2010, the annual streamflow of these rivers increased as high as 65%, and upward trends in statistical significance were found for the Mulatos, Canal del Dique, Magdalena, and Fundación Rivers.The concurrence of major oscillation processes and the maximum power of the 3–7 year band fluctuation defined a period of intense hydrological activity from approximately 1998–2002. The wavelet spectrum highlighted a change in the variability patterns of fluvial systems between 2000 and 2010 characterised
by a shift towards a quasi-decadal process (8–12 years) domain. The Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), El Niño – Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events, and quasi-decadal climate processes are the main factors controlling the fluvial discharge variability of these fluvial systems.
 

ESTIMATING FLUVIAL DISCHARGE IN THE CARIBBEAN SEABOARD OF COLOMBIA: MAGNITUDE, VARIABILITY AND EXTREME EVENTS

Juan C. Restrepo, Juan C. Ortiz, Mauro Maza, Luis Otero, Manuel Alvarado and Julián Aguirre

Proceedings of  33rd Conference on Coastal Engineering, No 33 (2012)

Monthly freshwater discharge data of ten rivers draining into the Caribbean Sea in the northern of Colombia (Caribbean alluvial plain) are analyzed. The data are used to quantify the magnitude, to estimate long-term trends, and to evaluate variability patterns of freshwater discharges into the ocean. These Colombian rivers contribute with ~340.9 km3 yr-1 of freshwater into the Caribbean Sea. The Magdalena River delivers the largest discharge, with a mean discharge at Calamar of 205.5 km3 yr-1 which represents 26% of the total fluvial discharge into this basin. From 2000 to 2010 the annual streamflow of these rivers rose up three fold. However, only the Mulatos, Canal del Dique, Magdalena, and Fundación Rivers have significant statistical upward trends. The concurrence of the major oscillation processes and the maximum power of the 3-7 year fluctuation defined a period of intense hydrological activity around 1998-2002. Wavelet spectrum analysis indicated a change in the variability patterns of fluvial systems between 2000 and 2010, characterized by a shift toward a domain of quasi-decadal processes (8-12 years). The Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), ENSO events, and quasi-decadal climate processes (e.g. sea surface temperatures over tropical North Atlantic, Pacific Decadal Oscillation) are the main factors controlling fluvial discharge variability of these fluvial systems.

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