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Entradas con etiqueta vulnerability .

Evaluation of extreme waves associated with cyclonic activity in San Andres Island on the Caribbean Sea since 1900

Ortiz J.C, Plazas J.M  and Lizano O.

Journal of Coastal Research - JCR (sep. 2014)

Abstract

San Andrés Island is one of the most important tourist destinations in the Caribbean. The extreme waves associated with storms and hurricanes since 1900 were studied. A total of 17 important events were identified in the last 100 years. During seven of these events, the eye of the storm was located less than 150 km from the coast: hurricanes Hattie (1961), Alma (1970), Irene (1971), Joan (1988), Cesar (1996), Katrina (1999), and, the most recent, Beta (2005). Most commonly, the storms approached from the southeast, these storms affected the northern and southern portions of the island. Using the parametric hurricane wind model and SWAN wave model, the wind and wave fields were modeled for the aforementioned hurricanes. The results showed that the western area of the island was unaffected by extreme waves, except for the waves caused by Beta in 2005, which were less than 2 m in height (on the 50 m isobath). However, the situation is different in the east. The wide insular shelf and coral reefs located along the northeastern coast act as a natural barrier dissipating the extreme waves so that most of the wave energy is dispersed before reaching the coastline. The southeastern coast is totally exposed to wave energy because of its narrow insular shelf and the limited presence of coral reefs. The maximum estimated significant heights were as much as 5 m on the 50 m isobath and occurred during Hurricane Joan (1988), the peak wave period was 12 s, and most of the hurricanes came from the southeast. The present paper establishes a fundamental basis for implementing management plans during emergencies related to hurricanes, considering that the island has been affected by at least one hurricane every 10 years for the last 50 years.

Full text: http://www.jcronline.org/doi/abs/10.2112/JCOASTRES-D-14-00072.1

Exposure of the Colombian Caribbean Coast, including San Andrés Island, to Tropical Storms and Hurricanes, 1900–2010

Juan C. Ortiz

Natural Hazards Journal, Dec (2011)

An analysis of the exposure of the Colombian Caribbean coast to the effect of tropical storms and hurricanes was conducted using historical records from between 1900 and 2010. The Colombian Caribbean coast is approximately 1760 km long, and the main coastal cities in this important region are Riohacha (RIO), Santa Marta (STA), Barranquilla (BAQ), and Cartagena (CTG). The surface extension of the Colombian Caribbean is almost 590,000 km2. The cumulative number of events was used to determine the exposure and to identify the most vulnerable zones on the continental coast of Colombia and in the country’s insular Caribbean. Although the Colombian Caribbean coast is not registered as a potentially vulnerable zone in international databases, there have been significant events in the region, some of which even hit land. The results show that the Island of San Andrés (SA) and the Department of Guajira are the zones most likely to be affected by storms in the Colombian Caribbean. Hurricane Joan in October of 1988 has been the most devastating event in the history of hurricanes in Colombian waters.

Full text. http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11069-011-0069-1

Resultados Preliminares de la Evaluación de la Actividad Ciclónica y el Impacto del Oleaje en La Isla de San Andrés desde 1851 hasta 2009

 José M.Plazas, Juan C. Ortiz y Omar Lizano (2011)

Con el fin de evaluar la actividad ciclónica y el impacto del oleaje en la isla de San Andrés hasta donde los datos disponibles y registros históricos lo permitieron, se realizó la identificación de las trayectorias de tormentas y huracanes que se han acercado a la Isla de San Andrés desde 1851 en una distancia menor a 90 millas entre la pared de la tormenta y la costa insular. A partir de esta información se modelaron los campos de vientos y espectros de oleaje de los huracanes identificados y seleccionados como típicos mediante el uso del modelo paramétrico de vientos de Lizano y el modelo de oleaje SWAN.

Al final se evaluó y discutió los resultados del oleaje producto de la modelación de huracanes desde la escala regional a la local, diferenciando el impacto del mismo al Norte y al Sur de la Isla de San Andrés. Este estudio permitió identificar las zonas de mayor amenaza de sufrir el efecto del fenómeno del oleaje de temporal.

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