Review Article: Renewables energies in Colombia and the opportunity for the offshore wind technology
Journal of Cleaner Production, In Press (February 2019)
Global offshore wind technology shows increasing progress evidenced in the recent reports of wind power capacity, expectations of market expansion and international research projects. Colombia is privileged with several types of natural resources (e.g. wind, sun, water) but there is not a clear legal context to regulate sustainable and safe exploitation of the offshore wind energy considered non-conventional. The development of offshore wind technology in Colombia could attend the energy demand when the hydroelectric system presents low electricity generation during dry hydrological conditions and El Niño – South Oscillations events. This paper analyses international actions that have motivated different countries to establish strategies to reduce CO2, and their advances and challenges in implementing offshore wind technology. The review of the administrative framework of renewable energy in Colombia proved the lack of information for implementing offshore wind technology. Furthermore, the analysis of several studies of marine energies showed the need to increase the knowledge of offshore wind energy.
The local applying projects to generate electricity from non-conventional renewable energies are not considering offshore wind energy projects. Hence, this research analysed wind speed and calculated wind power density at different height levels, what evidenced magnitudes and positive trends what justify to increase the research in offshore wind energy in Colombia. As a result, the present document compiles technical, economic, administrative and legal information of the renewable energies in Colombia that may be used for taking decisions of different stakeholders and evidences the potential implementing offshore wind farms in areas near to the Colombian Caribbean coast. Colombia has great resources to implement offshore wind energy technologies, reducing the dependence on fossil fuels and substituting other systems when they cannot guarantee the energy offer.
Keywords: Wind energy; Offshore; Renewable energy; Colombia; Wind turbines